The collection spans the years to , with the bulk of the material covering the period from to Rachel Carson Papers Notebooks, letters, clippings, and photos relating to the life of the American nature writer and environmentalist.
View all images. But Sandra is not the only one who is on a journey—the chemicals against which she is fighting are also on the move. We follow these invisible toxins as they migrate to some of the most beautiful places in North America. We see how these chemicals enter our bodies and how, once inside, scientists believe they may be working to cause cancer.
Several experts in the fields of toxicology and cancer research make important cameo appearances in the film, highlighting their own findings on two pervasive chemicals: atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides in the world, and the industrial compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs. Their work further illuminates the significant connection between a healthy environment and human health. More details, including DVD purchase information, at www. Rachel's Traces The collection consists of Linda Lear's archive of materials used for her biography, Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature , and for the anthology, Lost Woods: The Discovered Writing of Rachel Carson , as well as personal papers given to Lear by Carson's colleagues and friends.
Open to Students and Scholars. The Ferdinand Hamburger Archives, Milton Eisenhower Library at Johns Hopkins University A collection of manuscripts related to Carson's graduate studies in zoology at the university during the early 's. Read chronologically starting with the overview, or go directly to a specific chapter that interests you by clicking on the navigation slider below.
Photographs: The Estate of Rachel Carson has put most non-copyrighted photographs in the public domain. All the research institutions listed above, plus several of the named organizations listed below, hold some photographs.
Format, cost, and availability depend on the institution, as well as courtesy permission. They would share summers for the remainder of Carson's life, and meet whenever else their schedules permitted. In regard to the extent of their relationship, commentators have said that: "the expression of their love was limited almost wholly to letters and very occasional farewell kisses or holding of hands". My love is boundless as the Sea. Shortly before Carson's death, she and Freeman destroyed hundreds of letters.
Editor Martha Freeman, Dorothy's granddaughter, wrote at publication: "A few comments in early letters indicate that Rachel and Dorothy were initially cautious about the romantic tone and terminology of their correspondence.
I believe this caution prompted their destruction of some letters within the first two years of their friendship Early in , Carson began library and field research on the ecology and organisms of the Atlantic shore. It appeared in The New Yorker in two condensed installments shortly before its October 26 book release by Houghton Mifflin again a new publisher. By this time, Carson's reputation for clear and poetical prose was well established; The Edge of the Sea received highly favorable reviews, if not quite as enthusiastic as for The Sea Around Us.
Through and , Carson worked on a number of projects—including the script for an Omnibus episode, "Something About the Sky"—and wrote articles for popular magazines. Her plan for the next book was to address evolution , but the publication of Julian Huxley 's Evolution in Action —and her own difficulty in finding a clear and compelling approach to the topic—led her to abandon the project.
Instead, her interests were turning to conservation.
She considered an environment-themed book project tentatively titled Remembrance of the Earth and became involved with The Nature Conservancy and other conservation groups. She also made plans to buy and preserve from development an area in Maine she and Freeman called the "Lost Woods. In early , a family tragedy struck for a third time when one of her nieces she had cared for since the s died at the age of 31, leaving her 5-year-old son, Roger Christie an orphan.
Rachel Carson was not a villain; she was a hero. Like the old saying goes "if it's too good to be true, it usually is" and that is exactly what happened with using these chemicals. Follow SP. This was an open-ended Her work as a writer and scientist stirred people up and helped launch a new age of environmental awareness in the United States. Bureau of Fisheries , writing radio copy for a series of weekly educational broadcasts entitled Romance Under the Waters.
Carson took on the responsibility of Roger Christie when she adopted him, alongside caring for her aging mother. Carson moved to Silver Spring, Maryland to care for Roger, and much of was spent putting together a new living situation and studying on specific environmental threats.
By late , Carson was closely following federal proposals for widespread pesticide spraying; the United States Department of Agriculture USDA planned to eradicate fire ants , and other spraying programs involving chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphates were on the rise. Starting in the mids, Carson had become concerned about the use of synthetic pesticides, many of which had been developed through the military funding of science since World War II.
It was the United States federal government's gypsy moth eradication program, however, that prompted Carson to devote her research, and her next book, to pesticides and environmental poisons. The gypsy moth program involved aerial spraying of DDT and other pesticides mixed with fuel oil , including the spraying of private land.
Landowners on Long Island filed a lawsuit to have the spraying stopped, and many in affected regions followed the case closely. The Audubon Naturalist Society also actively opposed such spraying programs, and recruited Carson to help make public the government's exact spraying practices and the related research. She also attempted to enlist others to join the cause: essayist E. White , and a number of journalists and scientists. By , Carson had arranged a book deal, with plans to co-write with Newsweek science journalist Edwin Diamond.
However, when The New Yorker commissioned a long and well-paid article on the topic from Carson, she began considering writing more than simply the introduction and conclusion as planned; soon it was a solo project.
View Rachel Carson Research Papers on lihatagebo.cf for free. Rachel Louise Carson, noted biologist and environmentalist who fascinated readers with three books on the wonders of the sea and awakened the American .
Diamond would later write one of the harshest critiques of Silent Spring. As her research progressed, Carson found a sizable community of scientists who were documenting the physiological and environmental effects of pesticides. From reading the scientific literature and interviewing scientists, Carson found two scientific camps when it came to pesticides: those who dismissed the possible danger of pesticide spraying barring conclusive proof, and those who were open to the possibility of harm and willing to consider alternative methods such as biological pest control.
She also found significant support and extensive evidence from a group of biodynamic agriculture organic market gardeners, their adviser, Dr. Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, other contacts, and their suite of legal actions against the U. According to recent research by Paull , this may have been the primary and for strategic reasons uncredited source for Carson's book.
Marjorie Spock and Mary T. They compiled their evidence and shared it with Carson, who used it, their extensive contacts, and the trial transcripts, as a primary input for Silent Spring.
Carson wrote of the content as "a gold mine of information" and says, "I feel guilty about the mass of your material I have here"  and makes multiple references to Pfeiffer and to his correspondence. By , the USDA's Agricultural Research Service responded to the criticism by Carson and others with a public service film, Fire Ant on Trial ; Carson characterized it as "flagrant propaganda " that ignored the dangers that spraying pesticides especially dieldrin and heptachlor posed to humans and wildlife. That spring, Carson wrote a letter, published in The Washington Post , that attributed the recent decline in bird populations—in her words, the "silencing of birds"—to pesticide overuse.
Carson attended the ensuing FDA hearings on revising pesticide regulations; she came away discouraged by the aggressive tactics of the chemical industry representatives, which included expert testimony that was firmly contradicted by the bulk of the scientific literature she had been studying. She also wondered about the possible "financial inducements behind certain pesticide programs.
Research at the Library of Medicine of the National Institutes of Health brought Carson into contact with medical researchers investigating the gamut of cancer-causing chemicals. Of particular significance was the work of National Cancer Institute researcher and environmental cancer section founding director Wilhelm Hueper , who classified many pesticides as carcinogens.
Carson and her research assistant Jeanne Davis, with the help of NIH librarian Dorothy Algire, found evidence to support the pesticide-cancer connection; to Carson the evidence for the toxicity of a wide array of synthetic pesticides was clear-cut, though such conclusions were very controversial beyond the small community of scientists studying pesticide carcinogenesis.
By , Carson had more than enough research material, and the writing was progressing rapidly. In addition to the thorough literature search, she had investigated hundreds of individual incidents of pesticide exposure and the human sickness and ecological damage that resulted. However, in January, a duodenal ulcer followed by several infections kept her bedridden for weeks, greatly delaying the completion of Silent Spring. As she was nearing full recovery in March just as she was completing drafts of the two cancer chapters of her book , she discovered cysts in her left breast, one of which necessitated a mastectomy.
Though her doctor described the procedure as precautionary and recommended no further treatment, by December Carson discovered that the tumor was malignant and the cancer had metastasized. However, further health troubles slowed the final revisions in and early She worried that if the companies knew it would give them additional ammunition to make her book look untrustworthy and biased. It was difficult finding a title for the book; "Silent Spring" was initially suggested as a title for the chapter on birds.
By August , Carson finally agreed to the suggestion of her literary agent Marie Rodell: Silent Spring would be a metaphorical title for the entire book, suggesting a bleak future for the whole natural world, rather than a literal chapter title about the absence of birdsong. The final writing was the first chapter, A Fable for Tomorrow , which Carson intended as a gentle introduction to what might otherwise be a forbiddingly serious topic.
By mid, Brooks and Carson had largely finished the editing, and were laying the groundwork for promoting the book by sending the manuscript out to select individuals for final suggestions. As biographer Mark Hamilton Lytle writes, Carson "quite self-consciously decided to write a book calling into question the paradigm of scientific progress that defined post-war American culture. Carson's main argument is that pesticides have detrimental effects on the environment; they are more properly termed biocides , she argues, because their effects are rarely limited to the target pests.
DDT is a prime example, but other synthetic pesticides come under scrutiny as well, many of which are subject to bioaccumulation. Carson also accuses the chemical industry of intentionally spreading disinformation and public officials of accepting industry claims uncritically.